Compassion Fatigue Among Pediatric Nurses in India
Three-Component Model Scale
Description of the Three-Component Model Scale
Organizational commitment has been an area of interest among many researchers. In particular, there has been a growing need among scholars to identify factors that facilitate devotion to work. Hence, to develop a better understanding of the concept of commitment, the three-component model scale has highly been used in research.
The Three-component model scale by Meyer and Allen’s is a refinement of the existing literature on organizational commitment. Initially, attitudinal attachment and behavioral intention were considered the dominant approaches to employees’ commitment (Limpanitgul et al., 2017). In refutation of the extant literature, the two researchers proposed a model, which asserts that devotion to an organization is based on affective, continuance, and normative commitment (Limpanitgul et al., 2017). Correspondingly, three scales of measure were developed, which include the “Affective Commitment Scale (ACS), Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS), and Normative Commitment Scale (NCS)” (Koskei, Kimutai & Bogonko, 2018). However, some of the items in the scales have been revised over the years.
The three scales comprise items that describe the construct of each component. For instance, affective commitment is regarded as an emotional attachment to a profession or an organization (Tadesse, 2019). Often, this affection may be embodied in employees’ bonds or perceptions of personal importance in the organization (Al-Jabari & Ghazzawi, 2019). ASC contains wording items that researchers can use to gauge an employee’s affective commitment (Uraon, 2017). The scale includes items such as “this company has great personal significance to me,” which is an indication of affection towards an organization (Betanzos-Diaz, Rodriguez-Loredo & Paz-Rodrigues, 2017). Similarly, normative commitment, which happens when employees feel they ought to stay in an organization, has associated subscales (Cherian, Alkhatib, Aggarwal, 2018). For instance, “This company deserves my loyalty,” is an example of normative wording, which shows that an employee’s commitment is obligatory (Betanzos-Diaz et al., 2017). Continuance commitment is based on necessity and is often linked to the perceived costs of living (Bilgin & Kutlu, 2018). One of the CCS items includes, “it would be difficult for me to leave the company, even if I wanted to do so” (Betanzos-Diaz et al., 2017). Such an item indicates that employees’ commitment to their profession is based on the fear of losing some of the benefits that they enjoy from their initial work.
Significance of the Three-Component Model Scale in Nursing Research
Nursing comprises professionals who interact with patients and whose behavior directly affects healthcare outcomes. The three-component model scale is of prominence in nursing research because it provides insights on employees’ mindset of either perceived obligation, reciprocity, or necessity. Such aspects define the level of commitment to their work, and eventually, the quality of services they offer to patients, which is exhibited in subsequent health outcomes (Neves et al., 2018). For instance, nurses with positive ACS are more likely to have a strong emotional commitment to their organization and profession and optimistic attitude towards their duties, which translates to the provision of quality services among patients. Contrarily, nurses whose commitment is embedded on necessity may continue to operate under poor working conditions in fear of economic or social loss associated with leaving the institution. Under such circumstances, employees may not be fully committed to their patients and can easily indulge in unethical healthcare practices.
When used in nursing research, the three-component model scale also provides resourceful insights on the internal factors that adversely affect organizational performance. As Naghneh et al. (2017) suggest, ignoring organizational commitment among employees can result in the incurrence of high administrative costs due to increased staff turnover. By incorporating the model in research, nursing leaders can have a better understanding of the elements that shape their employees’ commitment. Such awareness can equally equip nurse managers with knowledge on the way the model can be used to transform continuance and normative commitment to affective commitment.
Overall, the three-component model scale is essential in understanding the concept of organizational commitment. When used in nursing research, it provides information on nursing behavior that affects healthcare outcomes. The model is also resourceful in identifying factors that influence employees’ behavior and organizational performance to develop corrective measures.
The Three-Component Model Scale
Affective Commitment Scale Items (Betanzos-Diaz, Rodriguez-Loredo & Paz-Rodrigues, 2017, p. 396).
“I am very happy being a member of this organization”
“I do not feel a ‘strong’ sense of belonging to my organization.”
“I really feel as if this organization’s problems are my own.”
“This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me”
“I do not feel ‘emotionally attached’ to this organization”
“I would be happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization”
Continuance Commitment Scale Items (Betanzos-Diaz, Rodriguez-Loredo & Paz-Rodrigues, 2017, p. 396).
“I worry about the loss of investments I have made in this organization”
“If I wasn’t a member of this organization, I would be sad because my life would be disrupted”
“I am loyal to this organization because I have invested a lot in it, emotionally, socially, and economically”
“I often feel anxious about what I have to lose with this organization”
“Sometimes I worry about what might happen if something was to happen to this organization and I was no longer a member”
“I am dedicated to this organization because I fear what I have to lose in it”
Normative Commitment (Betanzos-Diaz, Rodriguez-Loredo & Paz-Rodrigues, 2017, p. 396).
“I feel I owe this organization quite a bit because of what it has done for me”
“My organization deserves my loyalty because of its treatment towards me”
“I feel I would be letting my co-workers down if I wasn’t a member of this organization”
“I am loyal to this organization because my values are largely its values”
“This organization has a mission that I believe in and am committed to”
“I feel it is ‘morally correct’ to dedicate myself to this organization”