Research Design and Methods

What is a Research Design?

A research design is an intensive sketch of how the study will take place. Most significantly, a research design will incorporate the methods of gathering facts. It also shows the tools used, the ways of using those instruments, and the proposed methods for analyzing information assembled (Fraenke & Wallen, 2006). This article outlines the Case Study Research Design and the qualitative research methodology used in the research field. In addition, weaknesses and strengths will be discussed.

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Case Study Design

A case study is a comprehensive examination of a particular problem. It is frequently used to study a wide sample size based on single or simple investigative examples. The Case study Design is reliable to those researchers attempting to answer the questions that explain ‘how’ or ‘why’ the problem exists. Such reliability issues include the measurement’s accuracy, stability, and precision to minimize such events. Therefore, to overcome this problem, the researcher requires intensive explanations that take the form of a case study design. On the other hand, validity issues include the problem’s history, the research instruments, the selection procedure, and the type of experiment used. Therefore, when examining why a certain problem exists, the above-mentioned validity issues help the researcher test the design’s credibility.


First and foremost, the approach provides an understanding of a complicated problem via a detailed background examination of limited events or circumstances and their interaction. Secondly, by means of a case study design, an investigator can relate multiple methodologies and depend on a mixture of sources to explore a research problem (Fraenke & Wallen, 2006). Finally, the case study model can give comprehensive images of particular and unusual cases.


The first weakness is that fewer numbers of Case Study Designs offer a little foundation for establishing reliability. Secondly, a deep focus on the study of the case Design may make it difficult for the researcher to understand the cause of the problem under research. Furthermore, primary details about the research problem may be absent, making the case difficult to understand. Finally, if the criterion for choosing a case stands for a very strange occasion, then the analysis of the results can only be appropriate to that particular case (Fraenke & Wallen, 2006).


The methodological approach can either be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative research increases the perception of fundamental causes, views, and stimuli (Fraenke & Wallen, 2006). It also gives an approach to the problem or assists in creating thoughts or ideas for the quantitative study. Additionally, it is used to discover changes in thinking and suggestions by narrowing down the problem.

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The researchers may rely on a qualitative study in situations that involve the documentation of events and their classifications. Therefore, to minimize documentation and classification issues, the researcher uses the opinion technique to use facts available about the problem, which gives the liberty to make informed decisions. Moreover, when testing the reliability of the results and whether the results are credible and transferable to other environments, qualitative study is relevant in this case. Validity issues include interviewer justification and negative case evaluation. Such issues are minimized by conducting a qualitative research study to get judgments and suggestions for a particular problem.

Strengths of Qualitative Research

Firstly, problems can be investigated comprehensively and intensively using the qualitative research method. Secondly, qualitative research, such as interviews, is not limited to particular questions, and the investigator can control the process. Thirdly, the study framework and path can be easily revised when the latest information arrives. Similarly, the information found on human knowledge is influential and, at times, more credible than quantitative statistics (Fraenke & Wallen, 2006).


The quality of research relies on the ability of the investigator to overcome prejudices and personal biases. Likewise, it is not easy to retain and evaluate its rigidity. Furthermore, the information available makes analysis and understanding take more time. Finally, a qualitative research study requires more effort, making the procedure costly.



Fraenke, J.R., & Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. (5th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hil.

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