Leadership and Management Outlook: The Next 20 Years
Forecasting the Next 20 Years of Manager Role
The manager’s role will likely experience several changes over the next decade. According to Hajkowicz et al., the growth and impact of artificial intelligence, enhanced connectivity, and effective communication systems are yet to be exploited (7). Megatrends that develop gradually will likely reshape the business environment within the next 5-20 years. Employment models might change given the rise of peer-to-peer marketplaces, such as Freelancer, Task Rabbit, and Upwork, among other platforms (Hajkowicz et al. 7). Besides, the Internet of Things (IoT) enhances business operations (Hajkowicz et al. 18). Digital technology also provides an opportunity for managers to hire globally (Hajkowicz et al. 91). Hence, future leaders must be prepared to manage a technologically oriented workforce to meet global expectations and will require skills to lead diverse and cross-cultural teams.
Five Key Leadership Behaviors Identified by James Kouzes and Barry Posner
Employees require support to achieve organizational goals. Managers can develop and implement strategies that assist workers in realizing targets. James Kouzes and Barry Posner establish five key behaviors for successful leaders (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 4).
According to the authors, an effective leader must have the skills to challenge work processes and support employees in understanding the procedures. A leader should inspire a shared vision within the stakeholders to provide a strategic direction to achieve forecasted deliverables. He or she should offer others opportunities to act, a trait that builds confidence among workers. In addition, a leader creates a path that others should follow. Finally, an effective leader motivates employees to deal with challenges in the workplace (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 4).
Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness
Fiedler’s contingency leadership model suggests that a leader’s effectiveness depends on two significant factors, including personal style and the extent to which a situation can empower a leader to attain control and influence (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 19). The theory is operationalized through an illustrated situational analysis table and the appropriate response style applied to a situation. The three questions include the relationship between the leader and the member, the task structure, and the position of power (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 19). In response, the relationship is either reliable or not, while the task structure is concerned with structured or unstructured tasks. Finally, the position of power is either high or low (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 19). The theory suffers significant academic criticism due to the limitations it provides on the degree of responses, which it restricts between high or low scales (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 19).
Features of the Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal theory demonstrates how leaders influence the perception of followers to accomplish goals using strategic paths. The model outlines that the characteristics of followers and environmental factors determine the appropriate leadership behaviors to perform tasks (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 21). According to the theory, leadership behavior falls within supportive, directive, participative, and achievement categories, which are applied to improve performance and job fulfillment (Bateman et al., “Chapter 12” 21).
According to Bateman et al., motivation sustains and invigorates a person’s effort toward a particular task (“Chapter 13” 4). Managers implement the interest of an organization and are expected to motivate people to join and remain in the organization to benefit from each other mutually. They should also propel workers towards their responsibilities as they perform tasks effectively for the success of their company (Bateman et al., “Chapter 13” 4). Every manager should offer incentives to enhance motivation. Accordingly, inspiring employees enhances the value and offers job satisfaction.
McClelland’s Needs Theory
McClelland’s needs theory explains that people have different predominant needs. For instance, Bateman et al. posit that individuals focusing on achievement needs are obsessed with success (“Chapter 13” 12). In addition, some may desire to be appreciated, while others need to build power and achieve control over people (Bateman et al., “Chapter 13” 12).
Bateman, Thomas S., et al. “Chapter 12: Leadership.” Management: Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2015.
Bateman, Thomas S., et al. “Chapter 13: Motivating for Performance.” Management: Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2015.
Hajkowicz, S. A., et al. Tomorrow’s Digitally Enabled Workforce: Megatrends and Scenarios for Jobs and Employment in Australia Over the Coming Twenty Years. CSIRO, 2016, www.researchgate.net/profile/Claire_Mason/publication/299953345_Tomorrow’s_digitally_enabled_workforce_Megatrends_and_scenarios_for_jobs_and_employment_in_Australia_over_the_coming_twenty_years/links/570728ee08aefb22b0934be9.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar. 2019.