Global Political, Economic, and Cultural Transformations Between 1500 and 1800
A Brief Background
Between 1500 and 1800, the world’s economy and society underwent radical political, social, and cultural transformations. These unprecedented changes occurred mainly due to variations in global demographic and economic structure over the two-hundred-year duration. The effects of the world’s changes during this period continue to be felt in the centuries that followed. In most cases, a development in one part of the world had a spillover effect on other parts due to the already established links connecting different parts of the world. Discussing some of the changes with a specific emphasis on the transformations in the Atlantic World will help us understand their economic, social, and political effects.
The period that got initiation from the Atlantic coast extending vastly to other parts of the world was marked by economic decline. A core factor distracting economic development in large areas of the Atlantic world in the 15th century was the inadequate chance to trade. During the eighteenth century, England was the first country in the world to be industrialized in terms of unprecedented economic movement towards manufacturing and commerce and the advancement of technology. The slave trade had an impact on the British economy in several ways. The British cotton mills became the emblem of the Industrial Revolution, which depended on cheap labor from enslaved people emerging from the New World. In addition to this, British consumers also benefited from other less costly produced goods such as sugar. These extra profits from the slave trade provided the British economy with an additional source of capital.
Apart from the slave trade, other considerable factors contributed to the advancements of the British economy. These include developments in agriculture, the progress of technology, the stability of political institutions, and the presence of a culture that was conducive to enterprise and innovation. In addition to the contributions of the slave trade, between 1660 and 1800, the regional distribution of manufacturing and wealth in England radically transformed. Lancashire established itself as a leading region in large-scale mechanized manufacturing, with the cotton industry and machinery production all located there (Kidner & McKee, 2008).
The reasons behind the economic fortune of England are found in the geographical reorientation of England’s international trade that occurred between 1650 and 1800. When England’s markets in Northern and Northwest Europe failed, the Atlantic markets offered an outlet for English manufacturers. For example, new markets were captured and benefited the producers of the northern counties and West Midlands. Indeed, the northern countries took advantage of the exporting markets, whereas the southern counties had to contend with the failing export markets. This difference had consequences for the development of the domestic markets in these particular regions. In addition to the economic developments in this period, great social effects occurred in England.
The period between 1650 and 1800 was characterized by major changes in the social class resulting from the developments and advancements achieved in this period. This period contributed to the emergence of rich merchants who controlled the slave market. In addition, it led to a difference in a social status where some were considered rich and others poor. For example, merchants in Lancashire and Yorkshire owned huge tracts of agricultural land, while others owned the cotton gins in these counties. The enslaved people were considered peasant farmers whose importance was only acknowledged in the agricultural sector. This long-term social exploitation of millions of black people was to have an insightful effect on the New World’s history.
Most often, it produced huge social divides between the poor black and the rich white communities, the repercussions of which still haunt British societies many years after this slave trade occurred. This divide was increased by the determination to separate black and white communities and discouraged intermarriages. In addition, they were reluctant to free black people from slavery, which continued from one generation to the next. Some of this social divide can be found in racial prejudices towards black people. The political units also have undergone major transformations, leading to England’s dominance over its fellow European countries (Williams, 2010).
In the seventeenth century, England established a parliamentary monarchy form of governance. She also developed new domestic institutions and prepared new political ideologies. Some were to be implemented domestically, while others were for new overseas adventures. By the end of the 18th century, England had started settling in different parts of the world to make them their colonies. England had a better-organized political system under the Queen, giving them the upper hand over its fellow European countries. For example, the military knowledge they had gained in several wars allowed the British to exploit the labor and raw materials available in many African countries and, to some extent, in Asian countries (Caferro, 2010). The ability of England to exploit its international pursuits economically depended on technological and institutional changes occurring domestically.
Between 1650 and 1800, England benefited from multilateral Atlantic commerce. England’s naval power made it easy to expand its American territories at the cost of other European powers, specifically France and Holland, hence securing advantageous treaties with Portugal and Spain. The dominance of the British is evident even in foreign countries like America. Expressively, British America manages the lion’s share of commodity production and commerce in America. Equally, they are more involved in the Atlantic world economic system than any other country.
In conclusion, the slave-based Atlantic world economy between 1650 and 1800 was a major factor in the transformation of England’s economy and society. However, apart from the factors outlined above, the advancement of England’s economy during the period was also promoted by shipping, marine insurance coverage, and credit institutions. This development contributed to England’s supremacy in international trade, which is a practice that occurs today. The proof of this can be found in the fact that England is hugely involved in importing and exporting goods and services. However, it should be noted that some of the changes that occurred in the Atlantic world had negative repercussions on the development of England. One of these can be attributed to the social inequality that continues to be felt in England. Even though England is considered one of the most industrialized countries in the world, it still suffers from the social divide between black people and white people. Instances of racism are still common in this country.
Caferro, W. (2010). Contesting the Renaissance. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Kidner, F., Weeks, T. R., Mathisen, R. W., McKee, S., & Bucur-Deckard, M. (2008). Making Europe: People, politics, and culture. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
King, S. (2006). Poverty and welfare in England: 1700-1850: a regional perspective. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press.
Williams, H. (2010). Death and memory in early medieval Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.