Developmental Psychology: Theories of Development
|Theory||Brief Description of Theory||Associated Age Group or Stages of Development||Example of a Classroom Application or Approach||References|
|Maturational Theory||It asserts that certain stages of development that every child goes through with the difference of the rate of growth are the only varying factor. Variations in their development are affected by genes and environmental factors.||Eighteen months to seventeen years.||The theory would be used to explain the difference between infancy, which is characterized by tantrums and confidence experienced from years 5 to 8.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Constructivist Theory||The individual constructs development through experiences and learning processes.||Childhood||Children have a different understanding and appreciation of being disciplined in class, partly from the learning processes and experiences in different environments.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Sociocultural Theory||The development and learning process amongst children is through interaction and gaining knowledge from the more knowledgeable members of the society. Social learning is essential, and it precedes actual development.||Throughout Childhood stage||A child progressive parents or guardians would depict a higher level of development than one with non-progressive or absent parents.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Ecological Theory||The environment and the interactions that a child goes through while developing become more complex with time and impact their learning experiences.||Childhood and adolescence stages.||A child learns more and understands complex relationships and concepts about life as they grow up.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Psychosocial Theory||Social interaction and conflicts that are faced throughout an individual’s life are responsible for their development. Developmental conflict is particularly impactful on growth and functionality.||The theory explores development through all stages of a person’s life from birth to adulthood which Erikson argued entails experienced development.||Conflicts in relationships and morality punctuate a child’s growth and shape their development.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Behaviorist Theory||The development of children is based on how environmental interaction impacts their behavior. Behavior is then used to provide for terms of determining development through observable changes. Conditioning is an essential component since factors such as reinforcement, stimuli, punishments, and rewards are responsible for shaping development.||Throughout the childhood stage as the child undergoes the process of conditioning.||Conditioning children can shape classroom behavior on handling conflicts to approach situations calmly and involve grown-ups where necessary.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Multiple Intelligence Theory||Human beings have different forms of intelligence that represent varying ways through which children develop. The theory explains why children have different preferences when it comes to learning.||Childhood to adulthood as individuals go through different experiences from which they learn in a variety of ways based on their capabilities.||A child with a high level of interpersonal intelligence would learn through their development stages through interaction with different positively impactful people.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Self-Actualization Theory||A child’s behavior and conduct are not solely dependent on their natural demeanor but on influences across their life process. According to Maslow’s pyramid of hierarchy, the development needs of a child are based on the basic human needs that they possess. The process of development sees the physiological needs being met first, followed by the safety needs. The relationship needs are met next, with self-actualization being the ultimate needs. Meeting the goals in the environment provides for the process of growth and development.||Throughout a person’s stages of development in their life||A child is bound to go through their early ages of development better from stable and healthy relationships with their parents and other members of the society involved.||(Follari, 2015).|
The Theory I Find Interesting
I find constructivist theory interesting because it describes the development in the childhood and adulthood stages. Learning experiences and interactions in life are essential because it provides a way through which a child learns and constructs their development process. Differences in childhood and development processes are based on each person’s varying learning experiences and their inferences from the same. The theory views the process of children learning from their seniors through questions asked and by imitating them. Thus, it can be applied to individuals with exceptionalities by providing different learning experiences tailored for them as per their needs, including ways of developing uniquely and individually. Overall, these factors make it an intriguing analogy to me.
Follari, L. (2015). Foundations and best practices in early childhood education: History, theories, and approaches to learning. Pearson Higher Education AU.